References

Module 1- Situational analysis and planning

Vynne, S., 2011 A participatory approach to adaptation planning in the US. Climate Prep, adaptation stories, lessons, explorations World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, USA

This is an interesting case study of adopting a participatory approach to adaptation planning in the context of climate change.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 2013 Best practices and available tools for the use of indigenous and traditional knowledge and practices for adaptation, and the application of gender-sensitive approaches and tools for understanding and assessing impacts, vulnerability and adaptation

Literature review and analysis of best practices and available tools for the use of indigenous and traditional knowledge and practices for adaptation and the application of gender-sensitive approaches and tools for understanding and assessing impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation to climate change.

Shrumm, H., Jonas, H. (editors) , 2012 Biocultural community protocols: a toolkit for community facilitators Natural Justice, Cape Town, South Africa

Step by step documentation of the process through which external actors, such as government agencies, researchers, companies, and nongovernmental organizations can interact with communities, considering their customary protocols and governance systems and the ways in which they are codified.

OXFAM-NOVIB, ANDES, CTDT, SEARICE, CGN-WUR, 2013 Building on farmers’ perceptions and traditional knowledge: Biodiversity management for climate change adaptation strategies OXFAM-NOVIB, The Hague, Netherlands

Initial findings of surveys carried out in Peru, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe to document farmer communities’ perceptions of climate change and adaptive actions they have already taken

van de Gevel, J.M.J., Bijdevaate, M., Mwenda, P., Morimoto, Y., Fadda, C., 2014 Collecting household level data on varietal diversification and adaptation strategies to climate change in East Africa Bioversity International, Rome, Italy

van Aalst, M.K., Cannon, T., Burton, I. ,Community level adaptation to climate change: the potential role of participatory community risk assessment

Global Environmental Change 18(1): 165–179. Explores the value of using community risk assessments (CRAs) for climate change adaptation. Abstract available (article not freely available online)

CIP-UPWARD, 2003 Conservation and sustainable use of agricultural biodiversity: a sourcebook, Volume 1: Understanding agricultural biodiversity CIP-UPWARD, Los Baños, Laguna, the Philippines

Offers 33 useful assessment tools in the area of natural resources management explained in a simple to use and illustrated manner. Depending on local context, a small number of tools can be mixed and matched from this collection.

Vernooy, R., Sthapit, B., Tjikana, T., Dibiloane, A., Maluleke, N., Mukoma, T. , 2013 Embracing diversity: inputs for a strategy to support community seedbanks in South Africa’s smallholder farming areas Bioversity International, Rome, Italy, Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Pretoria, South Africa.

This report places four-cell analysis carried out in two smallholder farming areas of South Africa into a broader context of the need for in situ conservation.

Schmeer, K. , 1999 Guidelines for conducting a stakeholder analysis. Partnerships for Health Reform Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Developed in the context of health reform, these guidelines present a systematic process for collecting and analyzing data on stakeholders.

van de Gevel, J.M.J., Bijdevaate, M., Mwenda, P., Morimoto, Y., Fadda, C. , 2014 Guiding focus group discussions on varietal diversification and adaptation to climate change in East Africa. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy

Chevalier, J.M., Buckles, D.J. , 2013 Module 4: Knowing the actors. In Participatory action research: theory and methods for engaged inquiry Abingdon, Routledge. UK, pp. 253-292

(not available online)

Sthapit, B., Rana, R., Subedi, A., Gyawali, S., Bajracharya, J., Chaudhary, P., Joshi, B.K., Sthapit, S., Joshi, K.D., , 2012 On-farm management of agricultural biodiversity in Nepal Upadhyay, M. , Bioversity International, Rome, Italy

Local Initiative for Biodiversity, Research and Development, Pokhara, Nepal; Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Kathmandu, Nepal. This case study from Nepal illustrates the uses of four-cell analysis, the process, and implications of the results.

Chaudhury, A.S., Helfgott, A., Thornton, T.F., Sova, C. , 2014 Participatory adaptation planning and costing: applications in agricultural adaptation in western Kenya. Mitigation and Adaptation for Global Change, July. ,

This paper introduces an analytical framework called Participatory Social Return on Investment, which provides a structured framework for multistakeholder planning, selection, and valuation of appropriate methods of adaptation.

Boureima, M., Abasse, A.T., Sotelo Montes, C., Weber, J.C., Katkoré, B., Mounkoro, B., Dakouo, J.M., Samaké, O., Sigué, H., Bationo, B.A., Diallo, B.O. , 2013 Participatory analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change: a methodological guide for working with rural communities World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya

This guide is designed to help researchers and development workers conduct a participatory analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change with rural communities and to develop action plans that reflect their concerns. Occasional paper 19

Practical Action, 2011 Participatory climate risk vulnerability and capacity assessment (PCR-VCA): tools for operationalizing the Adaptive Livelihood Framework Practical Action, Colombo, Sri Lanka

A method incorporating climate risk into commonly used vulnerable and capacity assessment. The PCR-VCA set of tools is broadly categorized under three themes: assessing the community’s overall risk context, assessing livelihood assets base, and assessing the enabling environment.

Regmi, B.R., Morcrette, A., Paudyal, A., Bastakoti, R., Pradhan, S. , 2010 Participatory tools and techniques for assessing climate change impacts and exploring adaptation options: a community based tool kit for practitioners Livelihoods & Forestry Programme, Kathmandu, Nepal, and UK AID, London, UK

Presents 13 participatory tools for understanding likely local hazards and risks of climate change and vulnerability of the environment and livelihoods.

Regmi, B.R., Morcrette, A., Paudyal, A., Bastakoti, R., Pradhan, S. , 2010 Participatory tools and techniques for assessing climate change impacts and exploring adaptation options: a community based tool kit for practitioners (pp 44-49) Livelihoods & Forestry Programme, Kathmandu, Nepal, and UK AID, London, UK

Tool 13, Community based adaptation planning, gives insight into methods for adaptation planning, stakeholder engagement, and the development of adaptation plans with communities.

Regmi, B.R., Morcrette, A., Paudyal, A., Bastakoti, R., Pradhan, S. , 2010 Participatory tools and techniques for assessing climate change impacts and exploring adaptation options: a community based tool kit for practitioners.  Livelihoods & Forestry Programme, Kathmandu, Nepal, and UK AID, London, UK, pp. 41–43

Tool 12 in this kit, Mapping adaptation partnerships, explores the institutional context in which a community operates and identifies appropriate institutional partners for adaptation.

Otieno, G., 2015 Preliminary steps in local climate change adaptation planning: tools and processes for conducting a situational analysis Bioversity International, Rome, Italy

Succinct and clear description of the tools referred to in this section, namely the transect walk, village resource mapping, the seasonal calendar, livelihood resource and impact assessments, and institutional analysis. Available upon request from Bioversity International

Maundu, P., Kapeta, B., Muiruri, P., Adeka, R., Ombonya, J. (editors) , 2013 Safeguarding intangible cultural heritage: a practical guide to documenting traditional foodways using lessons from the Isukha and Pokot communities of Kenya Unesco, Paris, France

Field manual for assessing communities’ food sources in relation to their landscapes and the use and management of diverse sources of food within the community. The approach is valuable to people and institutions interested in safeguarding and promoting the use of local food resources in partnership with local schools.

Xu Jianchu, Sun Qiu, Vernooy, R. , 2006 The power of participatory monitoring and evaluation Development in Practice 16(5),

A synthesis article on the Chinese experience. Not freely downloadable.

World Bank,The seasonal calendar tool World Bank, Washington, DC, USA

Detailed description of the key elements of the seasonal calendar and some of its limitations.

Patton, M.Q, 1997 Utilization-focused evaluation. The new century text. Sage Publications, Thousands Oaks, USA

This classic book on utilization-focused evaluation is the source of the U-FE checklist

Reed, S.M., Graves, A., Dandy, N., Posthumus, H., Hubacek, K., Morris, J., Prell, C., Quinn, C.H., Stringer, L.C. ,Who’s in and why? A typology of stakeholder analysis methods for natural resource management Journal of Environmental Management 90: 1933-1949,

Module 2 - Data preparation and software selection

Mittra, S., van Etten, J., Franco, T. , 2013 Collecting weather data in the field with high spatial and temporal resolution using iButton Bioversity International, Rome (Italy)

This manual describes in detail how to use iButtons for weather observations.

Samy Gaiji, S., Chavan, V., Arino, A., Otegui, J., Hobern, D., Sood, R., Robles, E. , 2013 Content assessment of the primary biodiversity data published through GBIF network: status challenges and potential. Biodiversity Informatics, , 8: 94–172

This paper is the first comprehensive assessment of the content mobilized so far through GBIF, as well as a reflection on possible strategies to improve its “fitness for use.”

Hijmans, R.J., Guarino, L., Mathur, P. , 2012 DIVA-GIS version 7.5 manual

Use of the Ecocrop model is explained on pages 54–56.

Dias, S., MacKay, M. , 2011 Promoting conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture – Information services for users worldwide Wageningen, The Netherlands

This PowerPoint presentation gives an overview of the key features of EURISCO and GENESYS and how to use these data portals.

Saarenmaa, H. n.d.,Sharing and accessing biodiversity data globally through GBIF. Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Copenhagen, Denmark

This short paper explains how one can become a GBIF data provider, and how users can access the data using web services and the GIS functions on the GBIF data portal

Scheldeman, X., van Zonneveld, M., 2010 Training manual on spatial analysis of plant diversity and distribution (Pages 1–40) Bioversity International, Rome, Italy

Module 3 - Climate change analysis and identification of germplasm

Wilby, R.L., Troni, J., Biot, Y., Tedd, L., Hewitson, B.C., Smith, D.M., Sutton, R.T., 2009 A review of climate risk information for adaptation and development planning International Journal of Climatology 29: 1193–1215,

This paper describes the development of tools for forecasting climate change scenarios for use in the assessment of adaptation mechanisms in several sectors and the knowledge gaps and improvements required to improve adaptation planning.

Ramírez-Villegas, J., Lau, C., Köhler, A.K., Signer, J., Jarvis, A., Arnell, N., Osborne, T., Hooker, J. , 2011 Climate analogues: finding tomorrow’s agriculture today Working paper 12. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security, Cali, Colombia.

This working paper on climate analogues was prepared by the developers of the tool. It explains the concept, its terms and assumptions, the method, how to use the tool, interpretation of the results, and its applications.

Lobell, D.B., Schlenker, W., Costa-Roberts, J. ,Climate trends and global crop production since 1980.  Science 333(6042): 616–620,

This paper analyzes how global crop production has been affected by assessing the effect of climate change using available climate data from 1980 to 2008.

Jones, P.G., Thornton, P.K., Heinke, J. , 2011 Generating characteristic daily weather data using downscaled climate model data from the IPCC Fourth Assessment

This article describes the method for the downscaling GCM data that are available in the MarkSim DSSAT Weather File Generator, the use of the tool, and the accuracy of the downscaled data.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment reports. 

Contains links to all IPCC assessment reports on climate change up to the most recent Fifth Assessment Report published in 2013. These reports are “published materials composed of the full scientific and technical assessment of climate change, generally in three volumes, one for each of the Working Groups of the IPCC, together with their Summaries for Policymakers, plus a Synthesis Report." Also contains links to technical papers, supporting material, a glossary, and supporting data.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change literature on general circulation models

This web page provides general information about GCMs, scenarios, and data used; a glossary of terms; and various links for downloading data from different GCMs. Users not familiar with GCMs should read the literature first before using data for climate modeling

Phillips, S.J., Anderson, R.P., Schapire, R.E. , 2006 Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling 190, , 231–259

This is a study of the background of the Maxent tool, explaining the concept and interpretation of results and assessing its accuracy.

Vogel, K.P., Schmer, M.R., Mitchell, R.B. , 2005 Plant adaptation regions: ecological and climatic classification of plant materials. . United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Paper 206

This paper offers an example of how a database of plant species can be made more meaningful and useful by classifying the data by ecology and climate.

Lobell, D.B., Gourdji, S.M. , 2012 The influence of climate change on global crop productivity Plant Physiology 160: 1686–1697,

This article contains a detailed analysis of the effects on crop yields based on present estimates of past and future impacts of climate and CO2 trends.

Scheldeman, X., van Zonneveld, M., 2010 Training manual on spatial analysis of plant diversity and distribution  Bioversity International, Rome, Italy

This manual describes in detail all the tools available in the DIVA-GIS software. It contains links to exercise data that can be downloaded and used to perform spatial analysis of plant diversity and distribution using DIVA-GIS and visualization methods to display the end results.

Alexandratos, N., Bruinsma, J., 2012 World agriculture towards 2030/2050: the 2012 revision. ESA Working Paper 12-03. Agricultural Development Economics Division Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy

This FAO report is about the trends for world agriculture for 2030-2050 based on updated data on population, climate change, nutrition and production.

Module 4 - Germplasm acquisition

Greiber, T., Peña Moreno, S., Åhren, M., Nieto Carrasco, J., Kamau, E.C., Cabrera Medaglia, J., Oliva, M.J., Perron-Welch, F., in cooperation with Ali, N. and Williams, C., 2012 An explanatory guide to the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland

This comprehensive guide introduces the concepts of access and benefit sharing and the road that led to the Nagoya Protocol and then presents and explains the 36 articles of the Nagoya Protocol in detail. The full text of the Nagoya Protocol is included as an annex

Greiber, T., Peña Moreno, S., Åhren, M., Nieto Carrasco, J., Kamau, E.C., Cabrera Medaglia, J., Oliva, M.J., Perron-Welch, F., in cooperation with Ali, N. and Williams, C. , 2012 An explanatory guide to the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland

This comprehensive guide introduces the concepts of access and benefit sharing, the road that led to the Nagoya Protocol and then presents and explains the 36 articles of the Nagoya Protocol in detail. The full text of the Nagoya Protocol is included as an annex.

López Noriega, I., Wambugu, P., Mejías, A. , 2013 Assessment of progress made to make the multilateral system functional: incentives and challenges at the country level Halewood, M., López Noriega, I., Louafi, S. (editors), Routledge, Oxon, UK and New York, USA, pp. 199–225

This chapter assesses the progress made (as of 2013) in national-level implementation of the multilateral system, the incentives that encourage users to become full participants in the system, and the challenges or disincentives encountered.

ANDES (Peru), The Potato Park Communities, International Institute for Environment and Development, 2012 Community biocultural protocols: building mechanisms for access and benefit sharing among the communities of the Potato Park based on Quechua customary norms IIED, London, UK

Shrestha, P., Sthapit, S., Subedi, A., Sthapit, B. , 2013 Community biodiversity management fund: promoting conservation through livelihood development in Nepal : de Boef, W.S., Subedi, A., Peroni, N., Thijssen, M., O’Keeffe, E. (editors), Routledge, Oxon, UK, and New York, USA, pp. 118–122

This chapter describes and reflects on the experiences of establishing pilot community biodiversity management funds in Nepal. It presents the achievements, challenges, and lessons learned and concludes with a number of recommendations to make this type of community-driven mechanism successful and sustainable

Moore, G., Tymowski, W. , 2005 Explanatory guide to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland

This comprehensive guide describes the special nature of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and the origins of the ITPGRFA; it summarizes the main components of the ITPGRFA and describes and explains its 35 articles. The complete text of the ITPGRFA is included as well.

Lapeña, I., López, I., Turdieva, M. , 2012 Guidelines: access and benefit sharing in research projects Bioversity International, Rome, Italy

Halewood, M., Andrieux, E., Crisson, L., Gapusi, J.R., Mulumba, J.W., Koffi, E.K., Dorji, T.Y., Bhatta, M.R., Balma, D., 2013 Implementing ‘mutually supportive’ access and benefit sharing mechanisms under the Plant Treaty, Convention on Biological Diversity, and the Nagoya Protocol Law, Environment and Development Journal 9(1): 68,

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. n.d. ,International code of conduct for plant germplasm collecting and transfer

This voluntary code describes the shared responsibilities of collectors, donors, sponsors, curators, and users of germplasm to ensure that its collection, transfer, and use are carried out to provide the maximum benefit to the international community and to minimize adverse effects on the evolution of crop plant diversity and the environment. The code emphasizes the need for cooperation and a sense of reciprocity among donors, curators, and users of plant genetic resources.

Halewood, M. (editor), 2015 Mutually supportive implementation of the Plant Treaty and the Nagoya Protocol: a primer for National Focal Points and other stakeholders. Discussion draft Bioversity International, Rome, Italy

This report presents the results of a series of activities (survey, workshop, post-workshop analysis) aimed at producing a tool to support implementation of the ITPGRFA and the Nagoya Protocol. It includes a series of scenarios and options for improved coordination in implementation.

Swiderska, K., Argumedo, A., Song Y., Li, J., Pant, R., Herrera, H., Mutta, D., Munyi, P., Vedavathy, S. , 2009 Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: implications of customary laws and practices. Key findings and recommendations 2005–2009.  International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK

This publication presents results from original research in China, India, Kenya, Panama, and Peru on novel tools to protect traditional knowledge rooted in customary laws and practices rather than based on existing intellectual property rights. The focus is on collective rights instead of individual rights

Ruiz, M., Vernooy, R. (editors), 2012 The custodians of biodiversity: sharing access to and benefits of genetic resources. Earthscan, Oxon, UK, and International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada

Moore, G., Goldberg, E. (editors), 2010 The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: learning module Bioversity International, Rome, Italy

This on-line learning module, which was produced by CGIAR’s System-wide Genetic Resources Programme, Bioversity International, and CGIAR’s Generation Challenge Programme, explains the ITPGRFA in a step-by-step sequence. Available in English, French, and Spanish and on CD.

International Society of Ethnobiology, 2006 The ISE Code of Ethics (with 2008 additions) ISE, Bristol, Vermont, USA.

Module 5 - Field-testing

Ceccarelli, S., Grando, S., Tutwiler, R., Baha, J., Martini, A.M., Salahieh, H., Goodchild, A., Michael, M. , 2000 A methodological study on participatory barley breeding. I. Selection phase.  Euphytica 111(2), , pp 91–104

One very successful PPB project, ICARDA’s participatory barley breeding project, showed that farmers can handle large numbers of unreleased varieties in their fields. Farmers select for different criteria than researchers, and their selections are at least as high yielding as those of breeders, especially off-station.

Meldrum, G., Sthapit, S., Rojas, W., King, O. , 2013 Agricultural biodiversity enhances capacity to adapt to climate change New Agriculturalist 13(6),

This short article highlights some examples of the multiple ways farmers worldwide use agricultural biodiversity to adapt to climate change and backs the demand for more variety availability.

Sumberg, J., Okali, C., Reece, D. , 2003 Agricultural research in the face of diversity, local knowledge and the participation imperative: theoretical considerations Agricultural Systems 76(2), , pp 739–753

This article supports the claim that farmer participation can lead to more successful outcomes in marginal environments and advocates the supply of sufficient experimental material, such as (diverse) varieties, for farmer experimentation.

Vernooy, R., Shrestha, P., Ceccarelli, S., Ríos Labrada, H., Song, Y., Humphries, S., 2009 Chapter 23. Towards new roles, responsibilities and rules: the case of participatory plant breeding In Ceccarelli, S., Guimarães, E.P., Weltzien, E. (editors). , Plant breeding and farmer participation. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy. , pp. 613–628

This book chapter provides an overview of various context-adapted, yet successful, experiences in participatory breeding and variety selection from Asia and Latin America. It highlights how participatory crop improvement requires a new way of doing research in terms of roles, responsibilities, and rules.

van Etten, J., 2011 Crowdsourcing crop improvement in sub-Saharan Africa: a proposal for a scalable and inclusive approach to food security IDS Bulletin 42(4), , pp 102–110

This article lays the foundation for a comprehensive crowdsourcing approach to crop trials and climate change adaptation, through the massive distribution of promising crop varieties.

Misiko, M. , 2013 Dilemma in participatory selection of varieties Agricultural Systems 139, , pp. 35–42

PVS has become a standard practice, but this publication shows a number of pitfalls. [limited access]

Witcombe, J.R., Joshi, A., Joshi, K.D., Sthapit, B.R. , 1996 Farmer participatory crop improvement. I. Varietal selection and breeding methods and their impact on biodiversity Experimental Agriculture 32(4), , pp 445–460

This pioneering article reviews various forms of PVS and PPB and compares their key features. It makes the case for PPB as an approach that can lead to more acceptable products in particular in marginal environments.

Joshi, A., Witcombe, J.R. , 1996 Farmer participatory crop improvement. II. Participatory varietal selection, a case study in India.  Experimental Agriculture 32(4), , pp. 461–477

This article describes the pioneering experience when PVS was used for chickpeas and rice in India. The results led to several important recommendations concerning the Indian variety testing and release system.

Sthapit, B.R., Joshi, K.D., Witcombe, J.R., 1996 Farmer participatory crop improvement. III. Participatory plant breeding, a case study for rice in Nepal.  Experimental Agriculture 32(4), , pp 479–496

This article describes the initial results of a rice PPB program carried out in high mountain areas of Nepal. In addition to identifying better performing varieties, the research also increased crop diversity in the area.

Witcombe, J.R., Joshi, K.D., Virk, D.S., Sthapit, B.R., 2011 Impact of introduction of modern variety on crop diversity In Lenné, J.M.,Wood, D. (editors)., Agrobiodiversity management for food security: a critical review. CABI International, London, UK, pp. 87–98

These authors discuss whether and how PPB changes crop diversity over a long period based on three case studies from India and Nepal for which good data are available. The study concludes that diversity has not decreased due to PPB. PPB has been successful in improving crop production, although sustaining PPB through institutionalization has not been achieved.

Ashby, J.A., Braun, A.R., Gracia, T., del Pilar Guerrero, M., Hernández, L.A., Quirós, C.A., Roa, J.I. , 2001 Investing in farmers as researchers: experience with local agricultural research committees in Latin America Centro internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia

This book is the number one resource for anyone who is interested in the CIAL method; it includes experiences, tips for practitioners, and references to practical handbooks, many of which are useful for the implementation of a PVS and/or participatory plant breeding program.

International Rice Research Institute., 2006 Module 6. Participatory approaches. Lesson 1. Participatory variety trials for rainfed rice cultivar evaluation In IRRI’s Rice Breeding Course. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines

A handy guide on how to carry out PVS, especially mother–baby trials. A section on how to collect farmers’ observations is especially useful.

Bioversity International, 2015 Offers training manuals, instructional videos and readings Bioversity International, Rome, Italy

This website provides offers training manuals, instructional videos, and other information and resources for designing and executing successful crowdsourcing projects.

Halewood, M., Deupmann, P., Sthapit, B.R., Vernooy, R., Ceccarelli, S. , 2007 Participatory plant breeding to promote farmers’ rights Bioversity Internationa, Rome, Italy

This brief seeks to raise the profile of PPB as an additional, complementary, and powerful strategy for advancing the rights and interests of farmers.

Vernooy, R. , 2003 Seeds that give: participatory plant breeding. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada

This concise booklet, which is also available in French, Spanish, Chinese, Arabic, Vietnamese, and Nepali, offers an overview of key learning and recommendations for practitioners based on a decade of experience in PPB.

Dickinson, J.L., Shirk, J., Bonter, D., Bonney, R., Crain, R.L., Martin, J., Phillips, T., Purcell, K. , 2012 The current state of citizen science as a tool for ecological research and public engagement Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 10(6), , pp 291–297

This article provides an inspiring overview of the different, creative ways citizen science is being used as a tool for ecological research.

Ruiz, M., Vernooy, R. (editors), 2012 The custodians of biodiversity: sharing access and benefits of genetic resources Earthscan, London, UK, and International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada

This book illustrates a number of successful examples of collaboration between breeders and farmers though the lens of access to and benefit-sharing of plant genetic resources. Case studies include PPB experiences in China, Cuba, Honduras, Jordan, Nepal, and Syria.

Module 6 - Germplasm conservation

Development Fund, 2011 Banking for the future: savings, security and seeds Development Fund, Oslo, Norway

This short summary document (19 pages) synthesizes the findings of comprehensive country review studies of community seed banks. Countries include Bangladesh, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Honduras, India, Nepal, Thailand, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The review connects community seed banks with farmers’ rights and concludes with a number of policy recommendations to scale up community seed banks as key organizations to implement farmers’ rights and work toward sustainable agriculture.

Shrestha, P., Shrestha, P., Subedi, A., Peroni, N., de Boef, W.S., 2013 Community biodiversity management: defined and contextualized de Boef, W.S., Subedi, A., Peroni, N., Thijssen, M., O’Keeffe, E. (editors), Community biodiversity management: promoting resilience and the conservation of plant genetic resources. Routledge, Milton Park, UK, pp. 19–25

This chapter defines community biodiversity management and describes the key components for putting it into practice. Other chapters in the book give practical examples of these components from countries around the world.

Shrestha, P., 2013 Community seed banks in Nepal: past, present, future Vernooy, R., Chaudhary, P. (editors), Proceedings of a national workshop, 14–15 June 2012, Pokhara, Nepal. Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development, Pokhara, Nepal and Bioversity International, Rome, Italy, Especially chapters 3–11

In Nepal, community seed banks have a long and rich history. These proceedings of the first-ever national workshop about the history, evolution, and future of community seed banks in Nepal include achievements and challenges, six case studies of community seed banks that reflect the rich Nepali experiences, and the experiences of two public institutions that support community seed banks.

Sthapit, B., 2013 Custodian farmers of agricultural biodiversity: selected profiles from South and South East Asia Lamers, H., Rao, R. (editors) , Proceedings of the Workshop on Custodian Farmers of Agricultural Biodiversity, 11–12 February 2013, New Delhi, India. Bioversity International, New Delhi, India

This report introduces the concept of custodian farmers, a typology of custodian farmers, and their main characteristics based on a review of literature and an analysis of case studies from South and Southeast Asia. The core of the report is a series of 20 profiles of women and men custodian farmers from India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, and Thailand.

Vernooy, R., Sthapit, B., Tjikana, T., Dibiloane, A., Maluleke, N., Mukoma, T. , 2013 Embracing diversity: inputs for a strategy to support community seedbanks in South Africa’s smallholder farming areas Report of field visits to Limpopo and Eastern Cape, Bioversity International, Rome, Italy, and Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Pretoria, South Africa

This report presents the findings of research in South Africa to answer the questions: To what extent are farmers still engaged in growing landraces? What are the main factors influencing the choice of crops and crop varieties? Is loss of diversity occurring? Are farmers experiencing the impact of climate change? If so, how are they responding? Are farmers saving seed on farm or at the community level? Are farmers exchanging seeds? With whom, when, and how? Are these practices changing and how? What do they think about a community seed bank? The report includes a novel framework for the assessment of the viability of establishing a community seed bank.

Jaramillo, S., Baena, M., 2007 Ex situ conservation of plant genetic resources: training module International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Cali, Colombia

This richly illustrated handbook describes a step-by-step method for carrying out ex situ conservation. Annexes include the International Code of Conduct for Germplasm Collecting and Transfer and a Checklist for Preparing Collecting Missions.

Brush, S.B., 2000 Genes in the field: on-farm conservation of crop diversity Brush, S.B. (editor), Lewis, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA; International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada; International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy, pp. 3–28

This chapter, in a groundbreaking book about in situ conservation (with a focus on on-farm conservation), defines two types of in situ conservation, the rationale for in situ conservation as a complementary strategy to ex situ conservation, the possible scope, market and non-market mechanisms for promotion, and a number of key institutional issues including farmers’ rights.

Engelmann, F., Engels, J.M.M., 2002 Managing plant genetic diversity Engels, J.M.M., Rao, R., Brown, A.H.D., Jackson, M.T. (editors), International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy, pp. 89–104

This chapter introduces the concept and practice of ex situ conservation and discusses achievements and challenges covering orthodox and non-orthodox seed species.

Negri, V, 2013 On-farm conservation of neglected and underutilized species: status, trends and novel approaches to cope with climate change Padulosi, S., Bergamini, N., Lawrence, T. (editors), Bioversity International, Rome, Italy, pp. 211–218

This chapter describes a number of policies and other measures that support the efforts of Italian custodian farmers and gardeners to maintain landraces, not only of major crops but also of neglected and underutilized species. Benefits derived from these policies and measures are analyzed and recommendations made to strengthen on-farm conservation of local diversity.

Sthapit, B., Shrestha, P., 2012 On-farm management of agricultural biodiversity in Nepal: good practices −revised edition Upadhyay, M. (editors) , Bioversity International, Rome, Italy; Local Initiative for Biodiversity, Research and Development, Pokhara, Nepal; Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Kathmandu, Nepal

This revised and updated handbook contains 17 tools and methods (“good practices”) for carrying out on-farm management, including conservation of agricultural biodiversity. Tools and methods are described in clear language and illustrated with figures, diagrams, and photos. An introductory chapter sets the stage and provides a conceptual overview of on-farm conservation of local crop diversity.

Shrestha, P., Sthapit, B., Subedi, A., Poudel, D., Shrestha, P., Upadhyay, M., Joshi, B., 2012 On-farm management of agricultural diversity in Nepal: good practices –revised edition Sthapit, B., Shrestha, P., Upadhyay, M. (editors), Bioversity International, Rome, Italy; Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development, Pokhara, Nepal; and Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Kathmandu, Nepal, pp. 112-120

This chapter describes, step by step, the establishment and operation of the community seed bank in Kachorwa, Bara, Nepal. The seven-step implementation method is illustrated with examples from the field. The chapter also presents and analyzes benefits of the community seed bank as perceived by users.

Sthapit S. , 2013 Strengthening the role of custodian farmers in the national conservation programme of Nepal Meldrum, G., Stefano, P. and Bergamini, N. (editors) , Bioversity International, Rome, Italy, and Local Initiative for Biodiversity, Research and Development, Pokhara, Nepal

This workshop report documents presentations made and discussions held to deepen the understanding of the roles and contributions of custodian farmers, analyse the influence of social and gender on their motivations and efforts, and identify practical mechanisms to support custodian farmers.

Vernooy, R., Sthapit, B., Galluzzi, G., Shrestha, P. , 2014 The multiple functions and services of community seed banks Resources 3(4), , pp. 636–656

Based on a literature review and field research, this article presents a novel comprehensive conceptual framework that focuses on the multiple functions and services provided by community-based seed-saving efforts, in particular community seed banks. The framework identifies three core functions: conserving genetic resources; enhancing access to and availability of diverse local crops; and ensuring seed and food sovereignty. It can be used for analysis of existing seed-saving initiatives and serve as a guide for the establishment of new community seed banks. It can also inform the development or revision of national policies or strategies to support community seed banks. The framework’s utility is illustrated by three case studies of community seed banks in Bangladesh, Guatemala, and Nepal.

Grunberg, H., Meldrum, J., Padulosi, S., Rojas, W., Pinto, M., Crane, T.A., 2013 Towards a better understanding of custodian farmers and their roles: insights from a case study in Cachilaya, Bolivia Bioversity International, Rome, Italy, and Fundación PROINPA, La Paz, Bolivia

This short document (33 pages) presents the findings of a unique research project that aimed to develop a better understanding of the attributes, roles, and responsibilities of custodian farmers in the Peruvian highlands. The concluding chapter offers some critical reflections on the method used, which is still in its infancy. It includes three custodian farmer stories and numerous illustrations.

Module 7 - Participatory evaluation

Estrella, M., 2000 Learning from change: issues and experiences in participatory monitoring and evaluation Blauert, J., Campilan, D., Gaventa, J., Gonsalves, J., Guijt, I., Johnson, D., Ricafort, R. (editors) , Intermediate Technology Press, London, UK, and International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada

One of the first books about the participatory approach, this book provides an overview of common themes and experiences in participatory monitoring and evaluation across different institutions and sectors as well as case studies. Chapter 1, Learning from change (pages 1–14), introduces key concepts and synthesizes four major steps for implementation.

Vernooy, R., 2005 Participatory research and development for sustainable agriculture and natural resource management: a sourcebook Gonsalves, J., Becker, T., Braun, A., Campilan, D., de Chavez, H., Fajber, E., Kapiriri, M., Rivaca-Caminade, J., Vernooy, R. (editors), CIP-UPWARD, Los Baños, Philippines, and International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 104–112

This chapter provides practical guidance for the formulation of a participatory monitoring evaluation plan including evaluation questions.

Work Group for Community Health and Development, 2014 The community toolbox Participatory evaluation. Work Group for Community Health and Development, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, Chapter 36: Introduction to evaluation, Section 6: Participatory evaluation

This is an excellent, concise overview of participatory evaluation covering rationale, theory, and practice.

Community Sustainability Engagement Evaluation Toolbox, 2010 Tool Selector

This list of monitoring and evaluation tools offers useful advice on the selection of tools according to type of data to collect (quantitative or qualitative) and category of outcome to measure (efficiency, effectiveness, and outcomes).

Participatory methods,Useful methods and ideas Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, UK

This online document has a useful section on participatory methods.

Gawler, M., 2005 Useful tools for engaging young people in participatory evaluation UNICEF Regional Office for CEE/CIS and the Baltics, Geneva, Switzerland, 42 pg.

This document presents clear and concise instructions for the use of 15 tools that can be used by young and not so young people alike.

Patton, M.Q., 2005 Utilization-focused evaluation (U-FE) checklist

A simple to follow checklist of 12 core tasks (or steps) and challenges for the facilitator of an evaluation.

Vernooy, R., Sun Qiu, Xu Jianchu (editors), 2003 Voices for change: participatory monitoring and evaluation in China Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming, China, and International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada

This book describes in detail how two Chinese research teams learned about and successfully integrated participatory monitoring and evaluation into their research projects in the field of natural resource management. The two case studies also explain the context of the research, the challenges faced, and how they were dealt with. Of special interest are chapters 3, 4, and 5 (pp. 55–147), which describe the field experiences of the two teams.

Module 8 - Knowledge-sharing and Communication

Röling, N. ,Communication for development, in research, extension and education

This article argues that it is not useful to consider innovation as purely the outcome of transfer or delivery of results of scientific research to the “ultimate users” or farmers and that participation plays a major role in effective innovation (see description above).

Röling, N., 2007 Communication for development, in research, extension and education Selected papers from the 9th UN roundtable on communication for development. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, pp. 57–77

This article argues that it is not useful to consider innovation as purely the outcome of transfer or delivery of results of scientific research to the “ultimate users” or farmers and that participation plays a major role in effective innovation (see description above).

Acunzo, M., Pafumi, M., Torres, C., Tirol, M.S., 2014 Communication for rural development sourcebook Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy

This sourcebook presents the various steps in designing and implementing a rural communication strategy that combines participatory methods with communication processes, media, and tools best suited for a specific situation. Module 1, pp. 35–40 and Module 3, pp. 75–115, introduce the reader to the communication development process and the design of a communication strategy and plan.

Bessette, G., 2004 Facilitating learning, dialogue and participation in natural resource management Communication and sustainable development: selected papers from the 9th UN roundtable on communication for development. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, pp. 79–100

This paper suggests a participatory communication approach where the information is not transmitted from experts to end users, but where researchers and practitioners use communication to facilitate participation and the sharing of knowledge.

Naboka Odoi, N. , 2006 Growing bananas in Uganda: reaping the fruit of participatory development communication Bessette, G. (editor), People, land and water: participatory development communication for natural resource management. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada, and Southbound, Penang, Malaysia, pp. 129–135

This case study is an example of empowering farmers through communication.

Bessette, G. , 2004 Involving the community: a guide to participatory development communication International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada, and Southbound, Penang, Malaysia

This practical guide for people working in research and development introduces participatory development communication concepts, discusses effective two-way communication approaches, and presents a method for planning, developing, and evaluating communication strategies.

Masuki, K., Muriuki, J., Odhiambo, D., 2012 Knowledge sharing and communication strategy: Evergreen Agriculture Project World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya

This case study presents a good example of involving stakeholders in the design of a communication strategy.

Mefalopulos, P., Kamlongera, C., 2004 Participatory communication strategy design: a handbook (2nd edition) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy

This guide presents the various elements in the design of a communication strategy. The reader will find concepts and tools used in identifying target audiences, establishing communication objectives and messages, using communication tools, applying a strategy, and evaluating results.

Guy Bessette, 2006 People, land and water: participatory development communication for natural resource management . International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada, and Southbound, Penang, Malaysia, 324 pag.

Jones, N., Walsh, C., 2008 Policy briefs as a communication tool for development research. Background notes Overseas Development Institute, London, UK

This article presents key ingredients of effective policy briefs. It stresses that it is critical to foster close collaboration between researchers and policymakers from the outset, rather than disseminating research results at the end of a project; to reach consensus on the key questions to be addressed; and to promote understanding of research methods as well as ownership of findings.

Oepen, M., Willner, S. , 2006 Strategic communication for sustainable development: a conceptual overview GTZ Rioplus - Environmental Policy and Promotion of Strategies for Sustainable Development, Bonn, Germany, pp. 36-46

Pages 36–46 present ten steps in developing a communication strategy.

Graeff, J.A. (editor) , 2008 Writing a communication strategy for development programs: a guideline for programme managers and communication officers UNICEF, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Pages 12–63 cover the steps toward developing a communication strategy. Although presented in the context of UNICEF’s health and development interventions, these tools and approaches can be integrated into other types of communication strategies.